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From Friends of Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area
(Public Facebook Page)

Lichen Camp Day 133
Karen Achenbach, July 12, 2024
For the last couple of years, I’ve been joining the group of citizen scientists combing through the forest collecting evidence that the proposed Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area is well worth protecting. Pristine lake, more old growth forest than previously thought, species at risk, species of lichen not documented previously in the Maritimes. The amount of biodiversity documented has been impressive. But while staying at Lichen Camp, I found you can notice so much just staying in one spot. Even if it is on a logging road! Besides many species of plants, I observed busy chattering juncos, insistent ovenbirds, several sweet-songed warblers. And I didn’t realize that my favourite song bird, the hermit thrush, also makes a fairly annoying squawk, especially first thing in the morning! The resident white admiral butterfly was good company for much of the day. Oh yes, and deerflies, of course! I also had a visit from a lovely gentleman traveling by on a buggy and we talked about the area and the various trails that are used through here. We see quite a few ATVs coming through, with a smile and a wave, and my visitor informed me that there will be over 100 on Sunday July 14th as part of the Bridgetown BASH. What fun!

And then for a swim with the damselflies at the lovely secluded beach at the lake. Very peaceful and refreshing on a warm July day.

Lichen Camp Day 127
Nina Newington, Jul 6, 2024
As word spreads about the camp and our work to protect this area, we get an ever more interesting mix of visitors, from Antonija Livingstone, performance artist living in France, to Haeweon Yi from South Korea, PhD candidate and Climate Theatre person, to Keith Eggers, mycologist and retired professor, surveying fungi in some of the old growth forest here, to two members of the Southwest Paddlers Association and their canoes, come to check out the pristine lake they’ve heard about, to Carman Kerr, our MLA, and his constituent assistant, Evan Fairn.

For these last two we had planned a hike into the 9.2 ha stand of old growth forest that lies between camp and the lake. We always take a slightly different route in, just to see what we see. We paid our respects to the grandmother yellow birch, along the way encountering a very large white ash, many ancient maples and ground so pit and moundy it rolls like a rough sea. Your feet feel the history of the land and weather. Trees rising, falling, rotting, nourishing. Seedlings biding their time in the shade, waiting for a hurricane or just for an individual’s demise to open a hole in the canopy, for the sun to reach down toward the forest floor. Meanwhile, down in the dark soil, networks of communication between fungi and roots flourish as they have for hundreds of millions of years, networks of exchange and reward, seduction and mutual benefit.

Somehow at Lichen Camp, symbiosis is always the topic. We can’t keep destroying nature for profit. Parasites that kill their hosts don’t last long. There are ways to coexist that are mutually beneficial. Examples abound if we are willing to see them. That’s a big if for societies based on competition, control and domination. But wherever you look there are other ways of being. Like weeds growing in cracks in the asphalt, other ways survive. And as the ‘weeds’ grow, the cracks widen.

Lichen Camp Day 123
Haeweon Yi, July 4, 2024
Endless bird songs gave me so much joy. The visitors and feathery friends of Goldsmith Lake include Ovenbirds, Common Loons, Hermith Thrushes, Common Grackles, Yellow-rumped Warblers, Dark-eyed Juncos, Blue-headed Vireos, Red-eyed Vireos, Black-throated Green Warblers, Golden-crowned Kinglets, Red-breasted Nuthatches, American Robins, and Hummingbirds (just in 24 hours!)🪶

I had a short morning walk to check on some fungi🍄‍🟫 There were little brown mushrooms at every step on the moss! Always check the fallen trees because it’s glorious season for slime molds! Check the beautiful red Stemonitis👀 Mosquitoes swarmed at even the briefest of stops, making it difficult to take photos. But I wanted to share how this microscopic world is mesmerising and full of wonder and joy! There are so many layers of the universe in this forest, sometimes too small for human eyes, but all connected.

The world ‘symbiosis’ was first coined in 1877 by the biologist and botanist, Albert Bernhard Frank, to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens. By having a word to describe this unique relationship and shape of living, we can talk and share more about what it is like to live together with other beings. Lichen Camp is built on hearts of so many wonderful people who care about the symbiotic way of living. Many thanks to everyone who filled the July schedule!

Lichen Camp Day 122

Lisa Proulx, July 2, 2024
My friend Debbie from Tennessee just arrived on Friday and agreed to come camp with me on Sunday! An avid kayaker, she paddled Goldsmith Lake with us almost every week last summer, surveying and measuring trees…so eager to learn about the proposed Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area’s special qualities. So many different people are willing to lend a hand in whatever way they can to help us protect this pristine lake and the surrounding areas of old forest.

It was so nice to have families camping at the landing on the lake for the weekend. A few people on ATVs cruised by and waved. There is a community paddle scheduled for July 21st.

There are still trout in the lake to entice anglers. As our world gets busier and crazier, we need more places like this to unwind and reconnect with nature and each other, in our own ways.

After the Firefly Light-show, the sound of gentle raindrops on the roof lulled us to sleep. Birdsong roused us from sleep Monday morning.

It felt good to be here on Canada Day away from the hubbub of celebration, quietly enjoying and appreciating the natural beauty of our land. 🍁

Lichen Camp Day 116
Nina Newington, June 25, 2024
Rain and cooler temperatures have been a relief. There’s nothing like camping on a logging road with forest to either side and a clearcut nearby to clarify how important forests are for regulating temperatures — and how poor forestry practices increase fire risk.

Thursday June 20th was pretty damned hot. Too hot to want to hike into the old growth forest west of the lake. Getting into the lake was a lot more appealing. But on the way we used a hand-held laser thermometer to take a couple of readings. The first was just 5m into fairly young spruce forest. It was shady enough for moss to cover the forest floor. Aimed at a sunlit patch of moss, the thermometer read 29.3C.

Five metres off the road into the neighbouring clearcut, the thermometer aimed at a patch of now brown, dried up moss read 55.9C
The surface temperature of the dead vegetation in the clearcut was actually hotter than the dirt surface of the logging road which read 44.3C.

If we had gone deeper into the forest, into old natural forest rather than the 50 year old post-clearcut managed softwood forest, it is likely that the temperature at the forest floor would have been even cooler, but we didn’t. We went swimming instead.

It’s pretty obvious that when you clearcut a forest, the sunlight and wind dry out the vegetation that grew up in what used to be a shady forest. The whole area becomes a tinder box. The private land just north east of camp that was clearcut last winter is a prime example of that.

Modified versions of clearcuts — such as those currently passing for ‘ecological forestry’ on public land — create similar conditions. By removing too much of the forest — at least 50% in all but two of the approved ‘prescriptions’ — they let in too much sun and wind for the forest floor to remain the cool green oasis that it was. You only have to look at the ‘Shelterwood’ cut to the west near Tupper Brook to see what kind of shelter is left, but that’s for another post.

Lichen Camp Day 111
Nina Newington, June 20, 2024
Nighthawks called in the dusk around camp last night, peent – peent – peent, hunting mosquitoes, I imagine. These were certainly plentiful. A flotilla found its way into the tent. By day they seem mild compared to the deer flies (horse flies? moose flies??) but at night those little whiners…

Still the nighthawks need to eat too, and all the aerial insectivores — swallows and swifts as well — are in trouble, so all praise to the insects. May they be plentiful and thank goodness for screen tents.

For screen tents and Dick Fox, who arrived late morning with a gift of ice and homemade rhubarb lemonade and the sighting of a young bear. Dick who has lived his whole life in this area and used to ride his bicycle to Goldsmith Lake as a teenager. Dick who caught strings of trout in Corbett Lake before the power company damned Bloody Creek.

We sit in the breeze in the screen tent on the last day of spring, Francine in her 40s, me in my 60s, Dick in his 70s. We drink iced lemonade and enjoy each other‘s company on a warming planet with dwindling ecosystems and the vast uncertainties. Francine goes for a swim in the lake, returns reporting turtles. Later I saw three, all painted, so beautiful, so precisely themselves. As are we all, here at another hinge in the year, the longest day, threshold of summer.

Sometimes all you can do is to allow it all: the nighthawks, the lemonade, the logging road slashed through the forest. Here it is. Here we are.

Adventures in Maine!
Admin, June 17, 2024
Citizen Scientists Lisa Proulx, Ashlea Viola and Ben Kendrick traveled to the Eagle Hill Institute in Maine to attend the week-long Calicioid (stubble) lichen seminar hosted by Dr. Steven Selva. It was a busy week of learning, hiking, exploring, and sharing knowledge.

The seminar included a field trip to Great Wass Island where the group learned how to hunt for stubble specimens that grow on bark. There were a few distractions involving a coral lichen (found by Ben), Cole’s possible stubble on a rock, Ben’s other discovery of a Powdered Foot Soldier and some ice cream on the way back to the Institute. The next day was a long one spent in the lab (until 10pm!) learning how to prepare specimens and work with microscope to interpret results. Lisa found an albino stubble lichen!

There was another field trip to Tunk Mountain Trailhead on Day 5 of lichen school. Lisa was pretty excited about the trip saying “We’re headed to a new habitat today for another field trip. Steve is working on getting us to find more stubbles on the bark (corticolous) and branches of trees…they are so tiny! They even grow on old Spruce resin (resinicolous)!” The trip was another fun day, followed by some more lab time (until 10pm!) keying out the specimens. Lab work can be long and frustrating, but Dr. Selva is a patient teacher and with his help to interpret the results from the microscope and UV tests one of the stubbles was identified as Calicium parvum which is less than 1mm tall and grows on bark.

Thank you to everyone that donated to help send Lisa, Ashlea and Ben to Lichen School! Not only was this a great learning opportunity for them, but they will be bringing back their knowledge and sharing it with others! Lisa’s already planning a trip “to Goldsmith Lake to see what new stubble lichens we might find, now that we know how to look!”. We can’t wait to see what you find!!

Lichen Camp Day 106
Nina Newington, June 15, 2024
Lichen Camp Day 106
So here’s a question.
If you’re a government department and part of your job is to protect endangered species and you have amended your harvest plans in order to protect a bunch of species at risk that a group of citizen scientist identified in areas you had approved for logging, and you’ve even gone beyond just putting in 100 metre buffers and have added in some biodiversity corridors so you’ve reduced the area available for logging by 40%, after you have done all this and scaled back your plans from 252 hectares to 138, why wouldn’t you take those plans and show them to the citizen scientists and say,
‘Could you check the areas we think that we can still harvest and make sure that you don’t find more species at risk there because we really don’t want to harm them? It’s part of our job to protect them and you seem to be able to find them so we would really appreciate your help.’

That’s not what happened. The department kept those amended plans secret and when the citizen scientists called to ask if the harvest plans were still on hold (the way they had been for over a year) the resource manager who used to respond promptly stopped responding at all. The PR team in the minister’s office dished out some word salad and quietly, to the south, an old logging road was widened and smoothed. It looked a lot like the holds had been lifted and logging was imminent. The citizen scientists filed a Freedom of Information Request but that would take time and time was what the forest didn’t have. So the citizen scientists went to work searching the original harvest plan areas. They didn’t know, of course, which areas were still scheduled to be logged and which were not. But they started looking again in all the places they hadn’t looked before and they found more and then more and they reported them all, the species at risk, to the department and the department said thank you.

After thirty days the documents came from the Freedom of Information request and lo and behold, there were those harvest plans, amended in November. Pity we didn’t know, said a citizen scientist. Pity they didn’t tell us, said another. Pity they didn’t ask for our help, said yet another. They looked at each other. Well they didn’t, said the first, finally.
The citizen scientists kept doing what they could until they had found so many species at risk in the parts where logging was still allowed that it began to seem silly. Surely, said the citizen scientists to each other, they can see now that this is not a place to log at all. This is a place to protect. Let’s email the resource manager and ask about these plans. And so they did. And guess what?
He didn’t reply.

Birding by Ear workshop (SOOF)
Nina Newington, June 13, 2024
Early Saturday morning the participants of the Birding by Ear workshop were fortunate enough to hear the song of the Species at Risk Olive-sided flycatcher (Quick! Free Beer!) in the Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area. Not only did almost everyone in the workshop document the observation in Merlin, but several participants were able to confirm the bird visually. This was the second recording and observation of an Olive-sided flycatcher in the same area 10 days apart. It’s pretty likely that there is a nest nearby.

Many thanks to all those that came out bright and early on Saturday, and to Julie Palmer and Bonnie McOrmond for sharing their knowledge and love of birds. Learning how to identify birds by their songs is a great skill to add to your citizen science toolkit. At this time of year when the trees are fully leafed out it can be very difficult to observe birds only by sight.

We also learned that every bird has a preferred habitat. Some like the Ovenbirds (Teacher! Teacher! Teacher!) nest on the ground, and others like the Blackburnian warbler (SOOF logo!) are only found high up in the canopies. Older forests, like the ones we explored on Saturday June 8 at the Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area provide a variety of habitats.
Over the course of the two-hour workshop participants recorded and observed the following 30 species: Blue-headed vireo, Northern Parula, Ovenbird, Hermit thrush, Swainsons thrush, Golden-crowned Kinglet, Red-eyed Vireo, Black-throated green warbler, Cedar waxwings (4), Palm warbler, Magnolia warbler, Ruby-throated hummingbird, Black-and-white Warbler, Blackburnian warbler (SOOF logo!), Hairy woodpecker, Least flycatcher, Winter wren, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black-throated blue warbler, Northern waterthrush, Veery, American redstart, Spotted sandpiper, American robin (2), Blue jay (2), Common grackle, Canada geese (8.), Black-capped chickadee (3) Dark-eyed junco and of course the star of the show (Quick! Free Beer!) the Olive-sided flycatcher!

What’s your favourite bird song?

Municipality of the County of Annapolis support for Goldsmith Lake Widerness Area
SOOF Admin June 12, 2024
“Dear Minister Rushton,
Municipality of the County of Annapolis is writing in support of the Save Our Old Forests (SOOF) Association’s bid to have the Beal Brook and Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Areas located in Annapolis County identified as candidates for protection.”
– Alex Morrison, Warden, Municipality of the County of Annapolis
Many thanks to Warden Morrison, Deputy Warden Redden and all of the Councilors of the Municipality of the County of Annapolis for their support of the proposals to protect Beals Brook and Goldsmith Wilderness Areas. The support also includes the request for a moratorium on all forestry, road building and industrial activities in the proposed Wilderness Areas while they are in the process of being designated for protection.

Lichen Camp Day 100
Nina Newington, June 10, 2024
Yes, it’s been 100 days and we’re still going strong, providing a base for forest protection, research and education. People traveling a distance to take part in SOOF’s Birding by Ear workshop this weekend, for example, were able to camp here the night before, ready for that 7:45am start.

Later in the day on Saturday a whole family stopped by to learn more about the camp and the Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area. They were excited to hear about the lake itself — a rare pristine lake that has never been dammed and has no cottage development around it — and the old growth forest surrounding it. When we tell people how many species at risk occurrences we have identified – 65, as of yesterday – they find it hard to believe that the Department of Natural Resources and Renewables might still be planning to allow logging in this area. We do too.

At some point most visitors to camp ask how long we expect to be here. The answer is simple: as long as it takes, but it is getting a bit silly. On March 2nd, when we set up camp, citizen scientists had reported 35 confirmed species at risk occurrences in the proposed wilderness area. Those were the result of 17 months of searching. In the past 100 days we have added 29 more.
We haven’t yet reported the latest species at risk, an Olive-sided Flycatcher. It was first heard by Corbett Lake 10 days ago by experienced birders Bonnie McOrmond and Julie Palmer, but we wanted to make sure it wasn’t just passing through. It was heard again and seen during the Birding By Ear workshop they led yesterday.

The government has committed to a Collaborative Protected Areas Strategy. We are more than willing to work with both the departments charged with protecting 15% of our province by 2026 and 20% by 2030. A couple of weeks ago the Citizen Scientists of Southwest Nova Scotia updated the proposal to protect the Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area. When we submitted the original proposal to the Minister of Environment and Climate Change in November 2022 we had only identified 7 species at risk occurrences. Now (it bears repeating) we are at 65. This time we invited Tim Halman to come and see the area for himself. Perhaps it is time to follow up.
If you want to help, please drop Tim Halman a line at telling him that you support protecting the Goldsmiths Lake Wilderness Area and asking him to include it in the 15% that will be protected by March 2026. Bcc your letter to to help keep track of how many letters are sent.

Lichen Camp Day 97
Nina Newington, June 6, 2024
Yesterday we had the privilege of guiding a group of Mi’kmaw youth from L’sitkuk (Bear River First Nation) into some of the oldest old growth forest we have found west of Goldsmith Lake. We first encountered this hardwood forest last November when we took a group of people on a hike to meet the forests of Goldsmith Lake. We hoped there might be old growth on top of the hill, but we had no idea what we would find. The massive Yellow Birch at the top of the slope was a marvelous surprise for all of us, including the guides. The core samples DNRR has taken in the hilltop stand are all well over 200 years old with an average age of 250.
We led the youth on a slightly different route and were amazed again, this time by how quickly we found ourselves in old growth forest. There were red maple and yellow birch over 80cm in diameter at breast height at the foot of the slope and all the way up, not just in the stand on top of the hill. Before we left the trail to reach this slope though, we paused and asked the students to describe what they were seeing in the young forest that surrounded us. shalan joudry — who organized this trip for the students from the Bear River First Nation high school — taught all of us the names of some of the trees and the meaning of the names. Stoqn, the word for balsam fir, for example, is the root word for the colour green in Mi’kmaw.
As soon as we crossed the swamp, you could feel the difference in the forest. What is it about old growth forest that allows one to identify it by feel? It’s not all about how big trees are or how old, it is about the relationship of the trees to each other. The space between them, the history of adaptation and survival expressed in their sinuous trunks. The role that flaws played in their survival. The community of life within the forest, from fungi in the soil to the moss and lichens on the trunks to birds living in the canopy high overhead. The importance of death as trees fall and feed the soil, making new life possible, providing homes for wildlife.
It takes time and experience and the willingness to observe carefully to develop this intuitive feel for old growth. The first step though is simply to go to an old growth forest. To breathe and listen and look around. To touch ancient bark. There aren’t so many places around where you can go and do this, especially somewhere you can get to in shorts and sandals (if you’re a teenager.)
Sometimes the youth were engaged, measuring trunks, offering sage to the grandmother Nipnoqan (the one we first met in November who came in at 107.5 cm dbh by the way); learning more Mi’kmaw names. As a group we moved easily through the forest off trail, across a swamp to reach the hardwood hill and then back again further south to meet the rare and endangered Wiskoq, the Black Ash citizen scientist identified. The details of how to distinguish White Ash from Black Ash may not have been compelling by this point in the hike, but the walk back out on the old trail was a dream of freshest green, that luminous green of beech leaves newly unfurled.
June, said shalan, the Mi’kmaw word for June is nipniku’s. Leaf-moon. Nipi is leaf; -ku’s is moon or month. Leaf moon.
We ate lunch beside Goldsmith Lake then shalan handed out Mi’kmaw tree identification sheets and challenged the students to identify some of the trees surrounding us. It was remarkable how the offer of stickers got the students moving.
What did they take away with them from their visit? A glimpse perhaps of what the forests once were in Mi’kma’ki and can be again? The experience of standing by a grandmother Nipnoqan far older than you will ever be. A moment of knowing in their bodies what it is to be in a whole forest of grandmothers.

Lichen Camp Day 95
Nina Newington, June 4, 2024
People often comment on the calm they feel at camp. Hermit Thrushes sing at dawn and dusk. Orchids and Bunchberry and Blue Bead Lily line the path to the outhouse. (Well, okay, the out tarp, but the commode is snazzy and handmade — thank you Cabot.) We are doing what we can to protect and restore our world. Msit no’kmaq.
But sometimes our relations have a sharp word or two to say. The other day, on the way back from a foray to check out the Wisqoq, the endangered Black Ash one of Licheneers found a while back, I found myself in a new to me patch of old growth forest (yes, more of it.) All was peace and wonder and big trees until shrieks filled the air. A large bird rocketed through the canopy. Another joined the cacophony though not at quite such length. Northern Goshawks. A pair, nesting up in the treetops somewhere and most definitely wanting me to move right along. They did not give up until I was well away, the male swooping lower, feinting in my direction only to bank away. It was thrilling and overwhelming and slightly frightening and not at all calm. Later, in the tent, supper cooked, I imagined them in their nest, settling their feathers, pleased with their teamwork.

Lichen Camp Day 90
Nina Newington, June 9, 2024

May 30, 2024

“There can be no purpose more inspiriting than to begin the age of restoration, reweaving the wondrous diversity of life that still surrounds us.” E.O. Wilson.

Since setting up Lichen Camp on March 2nd, 24 different people have camped and 5 others have filled in daytime gaps. Some of us are retired, others come at the weekend or after work, leaving the next morning. Still others have done the steady behind the scenes work required to keep the schedule sorted and necessary information flowing. Then there have been donations from baked goods to firewood to fire cider, not to mention cash and artwork.

Oh and there was the heroic duo who drove into camp one dark and stormy night to help lash down tents when, in the woods, the ground was rising and falling like the sea. The wind, too fierce to stand up in out on the logging road, was rocking the spruce trees at the forest edge, their shallow, moss-covered root fans lifting and dropping back down. None of the tents were damaged that night, thanks to amazing people willing to step up when needed. You know who you are.

And then there are the lichen hunters identifying species at risk and finding ever more old growth forest, building the case for protecting this whole area and nibbling ever more holes (in the form of 100m buffers) in the cut blocks DNRR mistakenly approved for logging in 2022.

Our goals of forest protection, research and education are all being met. On June 5th a group of Mi’kmaw youth from Bear River First Nation are coming to experience some of the old growth forest here and to meet the endangered Wisqoq or Black Ash found growing west of Goldsmith Lake.

All over the world there are groups of people beginning ‘the age of restoration, reweaving the wondrous diversity of life that still surrounds us.’ At one level it is a slog — what will it take for DNRR to agree that it is not appropriate to harvest in a biodiversity hotspot like the one we have documented around Goldsmith Lake? But at another level it is a joy and a privilege to play our small part in protecting and restoring our home. Msit no’kmaq. All my relations.

Lichen Camp Day 88
Lisa Proulx on May 29, 2024

I finally made time to get into Goldsmith Lake and Lichen Camp on Sunday. It had been awhile due to family matters and I was ready for a fix.

I spotted a bear twice near the same spot…very exciting as I’d only seen scat and tracks prior to this. (I was safely driving in the car both times!)

Nina had recommended a new spot to explore that she considered as looking “juicy” and she was right! We loosely followed Tupper Brook south and wandered around looking for big trees…we eventually found a nice Sugar Maple with a DBH (diameter at breast height) of 79 cm. The spring flowers were in bloom everywhere! Lady’s-Slippers, Bunchberry, Painted Trillium, Rhodora, in two lovely shades, Starflowers, Bluebead Lily, Bluets and Rose Twisted Stalk to name a few! We saw lots of frogs…always a good sign. Of course the highlight of the day was a Sclerophora stubble lichen growing on the exposed heartwood of a Yellow Birch. I’ve sent it off to a lichenologist for ID, hoping it will be the protected Frosted Glass Whiskers!

The old forest around Goldsmith Lake worked its magic on my tired body and frazzled mind…I came away feeling soothed and hopeful. Spending time getting to know its inhabitants with another citizen scientist is balm for my soul. The many laughs also helped!

I’m so grateful that I can spend time doing what I love best…roaming the woods…and helping to protect it…thank you Goldsmith Lake forests! ❤

Lichen Camp Day 87
Nina Newington on May 27, 2024
It’s not all research, education and blackfly support at Lichen Camp.
It was getting pretty hot in the main tent in the afternoons when, late last week, two noble, nameless Samaritans showed up with a screen tent and a zero gravity chair. Oh boy! Love it.
In case you think we’re slacking off, we did also come upon yet more old growth forest last week, this time west of camp in the headwaters of Tupper Brook. It’s next to one of the areas DNRR approved for logging in 2022. Fortunately most of the harvest plan area that is within the boundaries of the proposed Goldsmith Lake Wilderness Area has not been cut. The part that was is a mess but that’s another story.
We’ll have a lot more to say about this new area of old growth later this week when we’ve had a chance to explore more. Suffice to say we already found one probable Frosted Glass Whisker. Awaiting confirmation…

Lichen Camp Day 82

Nina Newington on May 22, 2024
We light the tent at night with LuminAid solar lanterns, recharge them in the day. They were invented by two young women for use in disaster zones. The light they give is warm, gentle.
Went to sleep with the waxing moon shining through the canvas.
Woke to Hermit Thrushes singing all around camp in the still standing forest.
The Black-throated Green Warbler has joined the dawn chorus line.
Life is good, the black flies thick this windless morning.

For older posts, go to

Also view there:

Ashlea Hegedus-Viola on Stubble Lichens

On Calcicoid Lichens